Movement Towards Independence

• Struggle with sense of identity
• Feeling awkward or strange about one’s self and one’s body
• Focus on self, alternating between high expectations and poor self-esteem
• Interests and clothing style influenced by peer group
• Moodiness
• Improved ability to use speech to express one’s self
• Realization that parents are not perfect; identification of their faults
• Less overt affection shown to parents, with occasional rudeness
• Complaints that parents interfere with independence
• Tendency to return to childish behavior, particularly when stressed

Future Interests and Cognitive Changes

• Mostly interested in present, with limited thoughts of the future
Intellectual interests expand and gain in importance
Greater ability to do work (physical, mental, emotional)
Display shyness, blushing, and modesty
Girls develop physically sooner than boys Increased interest in sex Movement toward heterosexuality with fears of homosexuality Concerns regarding physical and sexual attractiveness to others Frequently changing relationships
Worries about being normal

Morals, Values, and Self-Direction

• Rule and limit testing
Capacity for abstract thought
Development of ideals and selection of role models
More consistent evidence of conscience
Experimentation with sex and drugs (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana)
Young teenagers do vary slightly from the above descriptions, but the feelings and behaviors are, in general, considered normal for each stage of adolescence.